Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar, which in turn is caused by a defect in insulin secretion, the inability to produce enough insulin, or the inability of the body’s cells to respond appropriately to the insulin produced. Insulin is a hormone responsible for helping glucose from food enter cells for energy. The chronic presence of high blood sugar leads to chronic damage and dysfunction of various tissues, especially the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and nerves.
There are three main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin due to the loss of beta cells, also known as “insulin-dependent diabetes”. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the cells do not respond properly to insulin, also known as “non-insulin-dependent diabetes”. Gestational diabetes is the third major form and occurs when a pregnant woman with no history of diabetes develops high blood sugar levels, which usually return to normal soon after delivery.
Paeonoside is a bioactive compound with some anti-diabetic activity.
Paeonoside is a bioactive compound identified from Paeonia suffruticosa that promotes wound healing and migration in osteoblast differentiation. Moreover, it has some antidiabetic activity and may prevent sepsis-induced lethality. In some in vitro studies, Paeonoside (PASI) (1-30 μM, 24 h) can significantly restore wound areas and promote cell migration in a dose-dependent manner during the induction of preosteoblast of MC3T3-E1 cells differentiation using osteogenic supplement (OS) medium. In parallel, PASI promotes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and its activity in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, in pro-osteoblasts of MC3T3-E1 cells, Paeonoside (PASI) (0.1-100 μM, 24 h) has no cytotoxic effect on them. However, Paeonoside can increase the expression of BMP2 and Wnt3a. Also, it can stimulate Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, GSK3β phosphorylation, and β-linked protein expression as well as upregulated RUNX2 expression.
In conclusion, Paeonoside can promote wound healing and migration in osteoblast differentiation with some anti-diabetic activity.
 Saedi E, et al. World J Diabetes. 2016 Sep 15;7(17):412-22.
 Kyung-Ran Park, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 27;22(13):6899.